What Is the Legal Term of Stereotypengocthanh
Word, Zanna and Cooper (1974) showed the effects of stereotypes in the context of a job interview. White participants interviewed black and white subjects who had been trained to act in a standardized manner prior to the experiments. Analysis of videotaped interviews showed that Black candidates were treated differently: they had shorter interview times and less eye contact; Interviewers made more speech errors (e.g., stuttering, sentence incompleteness, incoherent sounds) and physically distanced themselves from Black candidates. In a second experiment, trained investigators were asked to treat candidates who were all white as whites or blacks had been treated in the first experiment. As a result, candidates treated as blacks in the first experiment behaved more nervously and received more negative performance scores than respondents who received the treatment previously given to whites.  Claude M. Steele and Joshua Aronson conducted the first experiments that showed that stereotypical threat can impair intellectual performance on standardized tests. In one study, they found that black students scored worse on a verbal test than white students when the task was framed as a measure of intelligence. If it was not presented in this way, the performance gap narrowed.
Subsequent experiments showed that formulating the test as a diagnosis of intellectual ability sensitized black students to negative stereotypes about their group, which in turn affected their performance.  The stereotypical effects of threat have been demonstrated for a number of social groups in many different fields, including not only academics, but also sports, chess, and economics.  People create stereotypes of an external group to justify the actions their group has committed (or intends to commit) against that external group.    According to Tajfel, Europeans stereotyped Africans, Indians and Chinese, for example, as unable to progress financially without European aid. This stereotype was used to justify European colonialism in Africa, India and China. The separate explanation of Hamilton and Gifford`s stereotypes was later expanded.  A 1994 study by McConnell, Sherman and Hamilton found that people formed stereotypes based on information that was indistinguishable at the time of presentation but was considered distinctive at the time of judgment.  As soon as a person determines that non-distinctive information from memory is distinctive, that information is recoded and represented as if it had been distinctive when it was first processed.  Based on prejudices against the public sector, Döring and Willems (2021) found that public sector workers are considered less professional than private sector workers. They are based on the assumption that the bureaucratic and bureaucratic nature of the public sector affects the perception of workers employed in the sector.
Using an experimental study of vignettes, they analyze how citizens process information about employee affiliation with the sector and incorporate the referencing of non-professional roles to test the stereotyped confirmation hypothesis that underlies the representativeness heuristic. The results show that references to sectoral and non-work-related roles influence employees` perceived professionalism, but have little impact on confirming certain stereotypes in the public sector.  Furthermore, the results do not confirm the congruence effect of consistent stereotyped information: the referencing of non-professional roles does not exacerbate the negative impact of sector affiliation on employees` perceived professionalism. In social psychology, a stereotype is a widely used thought about certain types of individuals or behaviors to represent the entire group of those individuals or behaviors as a whole.  These thoughts or beliefs may or may not reflect reality.   Within psychology and other disciplines, there are different conceptualizations and theories of stereotypes, which sometimes have similarities and contain contradictory elements. In addition, in the social sciences and some sub-disciplines of psychology, stereotypes are sometimes reproduced and can be identified in some theories, for example in hypotheses about other cultures.  “Stereotypes”.
Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/stereotype. Retrieved 11 October 2022. Not only has the stereotypical threat been widely criticized on a theoretical basis, but several attempts to replicate its experimental evidence have failed.     The results supporting the concept were considered to be the result of publication bias in several methodological reviews.   Another explanation is that people are socialized to adopt the same stereotypes.  Some psychologists believe that although stereotypes can be absorbed at any age, stereotypes are generally acquired in early childhood under the influence of parents, teachers, peers and the media. Apart from printing, the first mention of “stereotype” dates back to 1850, as a name meaning an image that has been maintained without alteration.  However, it was not until 1922 that the American journalist Walter Lippmann first used the term “stereotype” in the modern psychological sense in his book Public Opinion.  Stereotypes are beliefs about groups of people. Some examples from human rights jurisprudence are the ideas that “Roma are thieves”, “women are responsible for childcare” and “persons with intellectual disabilities are incapable of forming a political opinion”. Human rights monitoring bodies – including the European and Inter-American human rights courts, the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination – are increasingly concerned about stereotypes and warn States against applying harmful stereotypes.