Explain How Is Natural Law Related to Natural Rightsngocthanh
After Coke, Sir Matthew Hale is the most famous common law lawyer of the seventeenth century. It is believed that this reason is embodied in its most abstract form in the concept of a primary commandment: “Good must be sought, evil must be avoided.”  St. Thomas explains: The distinction between alienable and inalienable rights was introduced by Francis Hutcheson. In his review of the original Our Conceptions of Beauty and Virtue (1725), Hutcheson anticipated the Declaration of Independence by declaring: “For wherever an invasion of inalienable rights is made, there must be a right of perfect or external resistance. Inalienable rights are essential restrictions in all governments. However, Hutcheson set clear limits to his idea of inalienable rights, declaring that “there can be no right or limitation of law that is incompatible with or opposed to the greater public good.”  Hutcheson developed this idea of inalienable rights in his A System of Moral Philosophy (1755), based on the principle of freedom of conscience of the Reformation. Indeed, one cannot renounce the capacity for private judgment (for example, on religious matters), independently of any external contract or oath to religious or secular authorities, so that the right is “inalienable”. Hutcheson wrote: “Thus, no man can truly change his inner feelings, judgments, and affections, to the pleasure of another; Nor can it do any good to make him confess something that contradicts his heart. The right to a private judgment is therefore inalienable.  While Locke spoke in the language of natural law, the content of that law largely protected natural rights, and it was this language that later liberal thinkers favored. Political philosopher Jeremy Waldron pointed out that Locke`s political thought was based on “a certain set of Protestant Christian assumptions.”  For Locke, the content of natural law was identical to biblical ethics as enunciated particularly in the Decalogue, the teaching of Christ, and exemplary life. If I have thus suspended their exteriority, I cannot lose them by the passage of time or for any other reason arising from my prior consent or willingness to alienate them.  Thomas Paine, in his influential Rights of Man (1791), went further into natural rights, pointing out that rights cannot be granted by charter, as this would legally mean that they could also be revoked and, in such circumstances, would be reduced to privileges.
Modern theories of natural law were strongly developed during the Enlightenment, combining the inspiration of Roman law with philosophies such as social contract theory. It was used to challenge the theory of the divine right of kings and became an alternative justification for establishing a social contract, positive law, and government – and therefore legal rights – in the form of classical republicanism. In the first decades of the 21st century, the concept of natural law is closely linked to the concept of natural rights. In fact, many philosophers, jurists, and scholars use natural law interchangeably with natural law (Latin: ius naturale) or natural justice, although others distinguish between natural law and natural law.  While American individualist anarchists first adhered to the positions of natural law, later in this period, under the leadership of Benjamin Tucker, some natural law positions abandoned and converted to the selfish anarchism of Max Stirner. Tucker rejected the idea of moral rights, saying there were only two rights: “the right to power” and “the right to contract.”  He also said, after converting to selfish individualism: “In times past. I used to talk lightly about man`s right to land. It was a bad habit, and I got rid of it a long time ago. Man`s only right to land is his power over it.  Many historical apologies for slavery and illiberal government were based on explicit or implicit voluntary contracts to alienate all natural rights to liberty and self-determination. Locke opposed slavery on the grounds that slavery violated natural law; You cannot give up your own rights, your freedom is absolute and no one can take it away from you.
In addition, Locke argues that one person cannot enslave another because it is morally reprehensible, although he introduces a caveat that enslavement of a legitimate prisoner in time of war would not violate natural rights. The de facto inalienability arguments of Hutcheson and his predecessors formed the basis for the anti-slavery movement to argue not only against involuntary slavery, but also against explicit or implicit contractual forms of slavery. Any contract that attempts to legally dispose of such a right would be inherently invalid.